1 - Paul, an apostle of Christ, wants to preach in Rome the gospel of which he is not ashamed, in which God's righteousness is attained by faith. God's wrath is against Gentile unrighteousness, giving glory to creature instead of Creator, so He lets them do vile things.

2 - The Jew is also guilty for judging Gentiles, but sinning himself. Claiming to follow the law doesn't save you.

3 - All are guilty. Redemption is available to all, not through the law but through Christ.

4 - Abraham was justified by his faith, before he was circumcised (before he had the law); therefore we can be justified by faith apart from the law.

5 - So we have peace and reconciliation with God through Jesus Christ. Adam's sin brought condemnation to many; Jesus' obedient death brings justification to many.

6 - But you are dead to sin, united with Christ's death, so don't sin anymore. We are no longer slaves of sin, which leads to death, but slaves of righteousness, which yields the fruit of eternal life.

7 - we are not under the law, since we died to it, but serve God in the Spirit. The law teaches what sin is, but the sin comes from me.

8 - Yet we are not condemned, being in Christ and His Spirit, not walking in the flesh. The Spirit tells us we are God's children. We groan, awaiting our redemption. The Spirit helps us pray accordingly. God works it out for the good of those He has called, who will be glorified. He is for us in Christ, and nothing will separate us from His love.

9 - Why doesn't Israel believe? They have God's promise and covenant. Not all ethnic Israel is the true Israel. God shows mercy to whoever He wants. He has rejected many Jews who sought God by works, and favored many Gentiles who found Christ by faith.

10 - Faith is from the heart regardless of being Jew or Greek. Why hasn't Israel believed?

11 - A remnant does believe, just like in Elijah's time. Many have disbelieved, resulting in Gentiles being grafted in; Israel might not continue in unbelief and may be grafted back in at any time. God's ways are mysterious and wonderful.

12 - serve God sacrificially, using your gifts humbly for the body, being peaceable even with persecutors.

13 - be at peace with civil authorities by doing good, showing honor, paying taxes. Love one another; do not lust and covet.

14 - Don't be contentious over secondary things. We live to the Lord; don't live your opinions in unloving ways. Bear with each other.

15 - Receive Gentiles who believe Christ. I plan to come see you on my way to Spain. Pray that God delivers me from unbelievers in Jerusalem.

16 - Greeting specific people; warning away from divisive and obstinate people.

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